Estoy comenzando (apenas...) a definir el proyecto de tesis con el que trabajaré por lo menos el próximo año y medio. Esto aún es el primer borrador PERO sería muy cool que me dijeran sus comentarios y sugerencias para poder mejorar lo que llevo. ¡GRACIAS!
(No tengo título todavía)
Women from Central America’s Northern Triangle do not flee their countries because of the increasing violence or the fact that they received death threats; not even because their family members and friends were murdered by gangs. They flee because the institutions in charge of the administration of justice are failing at the most important task that they were created for: provide security.
The NTCA (Northern Triangle in Central America) is a highly violent region due to three actors: drug traffic, gangs and criminal armed groups. For instance, El Salvador was ranked as the most violent country in the world with 103 homicides per 100 000 people in 2015 –place in the rankings that was filled by Honduras until 2014 but now its homicide rates dropped from 60 to 57 homicides per 100 000 people.
In the case of women, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras rank first, third and seventh, respectively for rates of female homicides globally. From 2007 to 2012, the rate for El Salvador (14.4 per 100,000 women) is more than double the base rate for the category (6.0 per 100,000). Honduras came a close second with a rate of 10.9 homicides per 100,000 women. The level of lethal violence affecting women in El Salvador is such that it surpasses the overall rate of male and female homicides in some of the 40 countries with the highest rates worldwide, such as Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Tanzania.
According to a study conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in which 160 women were interviewed, all of them were threatened to death, attacked or had a family member got killed. When it comes to gangs, a Honduran woman said: “The gangs treat women much worse than men. They want us to join as members, but then women are also threatened to be gang members’ ‘girlfriends’, and it’s never just sex with one; it’s forced with all of them. Women are raped by them, tortured by them, abused by them.” They said that due to their gender they were both targets of violence and unable to find adequate protection.
Moreover, they expressed their mistrust in the police stating that the same police are working at the gang’s side. When they receive death threats they cannot seek for protection because instead of helping them, they alert the gangs. Other women from the NTCA who worked with the police or have family members explained that police officers or government authorities who refused to collaborate with the gangs were threatened, attacked, or killed. […] Threats and attacks on police and other authorities made it very difficult to seek protection and contributed to a generalized feeling of impunity and insecurity.
For my research I want to prove that there is a direct relation between the problem of corruption in the NTCA caused by the penetration of the organized crime in the public institutions in charge of the administration of justice (due to great institutional weakness), and the decision of the women from these countries to flee. The target population of study is women from 18 to 30 years old since they are the main group of women attacked.
I will study corruption in two ways: the penetration of the organized crime (especially Maras) in the police and the army and the institutional corruption. Violence has been escalating due to high levels of corruption in these countries that keep increasing; there is no police or army stopping these criminal groups. Furthermore, this corruption is caused by weak States (or failed States) whose main responsibility is to ensure the safety and security of their countries’ habitants. Private interests and political ambitions corrupt these institutions in order to achieve their own goals.
Y así los leo a todos...
 The world average homicide rate is 6 homicides per 100 000 people.
 The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, Global Burdens of Armed Violence 2015, http://www.genevadeclaration.org/fileadmin/docs/GBAV3/GBAV3_Ch3_pp87-120.pdf
 Op. cit., Women on the run, p. 16.
 Ibid, p. 22.